What is HTTPS (HTTP over SSL/TLS)?
HTTPS, which stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure, is a secured version of HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) that ensures the privacy and integrity of data transferred between a user’s web browser and a website. It is achieved by using SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or its successor, TLS (Transport Layer Security), protocols to encrypt the information exchanged.
HTTP is the protocol used for sending and receiving data over the internet. However, it lacks security measures, making it vulnerable to eavesdropping, data tampering, and unauthorized access. To overcome these issues and establish a secure channel, HTTPS was introduced.
Basic Concepts of Secure Web Communication
1. Encryption: HTTPS uses encryption to protect data in transit. Encryption involves converting plaintext (unencrypted data) into ciphertext (encrypted data) using an encryption algorithm and a unique encryption key. This process ensures that even if someone intercepts the information, they cannot interpret it without the correct decryption key.
2. SSL/TLS Handshake: To establish a secure connection, the client (web browser) and the server (website) perform an SSL/TLS handshake. During this process, they exchange information, verify identities, and negotiate encryption algorithms and keys. This handshake ensures that both parties trust each other and establish a secure encrypted channel for further communication.
3. Digital Certificates: Digital certificates serve as electronic credentials that verify the authenticity of a website. When a user accesses an HTTPS website, the server presents its digital certificate, which is issued by a trusted Certificate Authority (CA). The user’s browser validates the certificate, ensuring that it is valid, not expired, and issued by a trusted CA. This validation helps prevent phishing attacks and ensures that the user is communicating with the intended website.
4. Data Integrity: HTTPS ensures the integrity of data transferred between a user and a website. Through the use of cryptographic hash functions, the receiving party can verify that the transmitted data has not been tampered with during transmission. If the data is altered in any way, the hash values will not match, indicating that the data may have been compromised.
By combining encryption, SSL/TLS handshake, digital certificates, and data integrity checks, HTTPS provides a secure environment for web communication. It is widely used for e-commerce websites, online banking, login forms, and any other instance where protecting sensitive data is crucial. Embracing HTTPS is essential for both website owners and users to maintain privacy, trust, and data security on the internet.