What is intellectual property? Basic concepts of rights to intellectual creations such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights

Explanation of IT Terms

What is Intellectual Property?


Intellectual property refers to a category of legal rights granted to individuals or organizations for their innovative and creative works. It encompasses a wide range of intangible assets, including inventions, artistic creations, brand names, and confidential information. To protect these intangible assets and encourage innovation, different forms of intellectual property rights have been established, such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights.



A patent is a legal document granting exclusive rights to an inventor for their invention. It provides the inventor with the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention for a limited period, generally 20 years from the filing date. Patents are commonly obtained for devices, processes, and methods that are novel, useful, and non-obvious.

Obtaining a patent involves disclosing the invention to the public in a detailed and precise manner, enabling others to replicate and build upon the invention once the patent expires. This knowledge sharing aspect of patents promotes technological advancements and encourages inventors to continue innovating.



Trademarks are distinctive symbols, names, or signs that distinguish the goods or services of one party from those of others. They serve to protect the brand identity and reputation of businesses, enabling consumers to easily identify and differentiate between competing products. Examples of trademarks include logos, slogans, and product names.

By registering a trademark, a business gains exclusive rights to use the mark within the designated goods or services category. This prevents others from using similar marks that may cause confusion among consumers or dilute the value of the brand. Trademarks can be renewed indefinitely as long as they continue to be actively used in commerce.



Copyrights protect original works of authorship, such as literary, artistic, musical, or architectural creations. These works include novels, paintings, songs, software code, and building designs, among others. Copyright grants the creator the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, display, perform, or modify their work for a certain period of time. In most countries, this period extends for the lifetime of the creator plus 50 to 70 years after their death.

Unlike patents and trademarks, copyrights are automatically granted upon the creation of the work and registration is not required for protection. However, registering a copyright provides additional benefits, such as evidence of ownership and the ability to pursue legal action in case of infringement.



Intellectual property rights play a crucial role in promoting innovation, creativity, and economic growth. Patents, trademarks, and copyrights all serve different purposes in protecting various forms of intellectual creations. By safeguarding these intangible assets, individuals and organizations are incentivized to invest in research and development, leading to the advancement of technology, the arts, and society as a whole. It is essential for individuals to respect the intellectual property rights of others and for governments to enforce and protect these rights to foster a thriving and innovative society.

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